Monorail | Zoo Miami


2016 map of Zoo Miami. The monorail path can be seen making a loop around the zoo. The closest monorail station to the entrance is in the Australia section of the zoo.

The monorail system at Zoo Miami opened during the zoo’s second season, when the zoo was called Miami MetroZoo. Universal Mobility, Inc. (UMI), manufactured this system with a second company, Budd Company of Detroit, Michigan.

In 1980, Miami MetroZoo purchased a $13.5 million dollar Tourister system from UMI. This system was scheduled to be opened during the zoo’s second year of operation. The system featured four stations with several monorail trains of nine cars each. The system was 2.2 miles long.

Monorail opened on December 4, 1982, just about a year and a quarter after the zoo opened.

The system has been updated, and the zoo purchased parts of UMI’s last monorail system, which operated in the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition in New Orleans.


This was not the only project UMI did for Zoo Miami – the zoo also bought a set of trams UMI marketed as Unitram. Unfortunately, on the day of the zoo’s grand opening, one of the tram’s engines caught on fire and was destroyed. Nobody was harmed in the incident, though it scared a gorilla which was nearby at the time.

That’s it for the Monorail at Zoo Miami. This is the youngest UMI system that remains in operation today, and the only one remaining built in the 1980s. Next time we’ll take a look at the last monorail system Universal Mobility built, which was at the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition. 

Skytrail | Minnesota Zoo

In 1969, a new state-funded zoo was being developed for the metropolitan Minneapolis / St. Paul, Minnesota area. The Minnesota Legislature created the Minnesota State Zoo Board (MSZB) to study the possibility of building such a facility. The study took several years, and planning and land acquisition took several more years after that.

Minnesota Zoological Gardens, was built in Apple Valley, to the south of Minneapolis / St. Paul, would open in 1978. Back in 1971, MSZB proposed to the legislature the inclusion of a monorail system into their funding plan. The idea was that it would give people a place to view from an aerial perspective and make it easier for those wouldn’t be so easily able to walk through a large area.


Minnesota Zoo map from 2012 with Skytrail’s route shown in the center.

This was rejected by the legislature in 1971. Two years later, MSZB put forth their final proposal for the zoo, which did not include a monorail system. The legislature approved this plan, and the state authorized funding of the Minnesota Zoological Gardens project. A year later, in 1974, the legislature allowed the MSZB to grand concessions in the zoo.

This option gave MSZB the chance to revive their monorail concept, as the legislation allowed for transportation concessions. MSZB investigated four potential monorail systems, ultimately choosing to negotiate with Universal Mobility, Inc. (UMI), of Salt Lake City, Utah, in March 1975.

MSZB then went to the state legislature and made a strong proposal to include a monorail system.  However, the Minnesota Legislature showed no interest in financing such a system. The legislature did authorize the zoo to build a system controlled by a third party, instead.

This third party became a nonprofit corporation specifically founded for this purpose – Minnesota Zoo Ride, Inc. (MZR),  controlled by MSZB. Minnesota Zoo Ride was established in August 1976. A year later, MZR reached an agreement with UMI to construct a monorail system at Minnesota Zoological Gardens. MZR agreed to purchase the system from UMI for $5.6 million. MZSB then agreed to an installment purchase agreement at a cost of over $13.9 million, which included $8.4 million principal. $8.4 million was the true cost of the monorail system.

MZR assigned the rights from the installment purchase agreement to Smith, Barney, Harris, Upham and Company (Smith Barney). Smith Barney then sold certificates of participation to investors (banks or insurance companies) to finance the monorail system.


Skytrail train 2. Photo courtesy of Gabe Emerson

The ride was scheduled to open in 1978. UMI was given incentives by the zoo to get the ride opened quickly. They were to earn a $100,000 bonus if a two-car train was in operation by December 1, 1978, with an additional $45,000 bonus if that two-car train was in operation by September 1. However, UMI found that their design for their track would make winter operation of the Tourister system much more expensive, so UMI redesigned the track to protect the power rail.

UMI also had difficulty working with the metal used for the track. The metal being used was a maintenance-free metal called Corten. The problem was that the metal could only be welded in temperatures above 50 degrees. This meant no work could be done constructing the track in the winter. Delays ended up being quite substantial, with only a small part of the monorail system opening in 1978.

It appears that the system was partially opened in 1978, to participate in a study that UMI volunteered to join. This was a US Department of Transportation winterization test – to understand how well certain monorail systems could operate in winter conditions. UMI was one of three companies to participate.

Minnesota Zoological Gardens faced immediate financial difficulties when the zoo opened in 1978. Attendance was much lower than expected and the delays with the monorail system certainly wasn’t generating any money. In March 1979, the zoo went to the legislature seeking an additional $1 million to avoid defaulting on the monorail. The governor of Minnesota, Al Quie included the request in his budget for 1979-81. The issue was not resolved at the time. However, zoo officials were promising that the monorail would be open by the summer of 1979.

The monorail, originally called Northern Trek Monorail but also called Skytrail, fully opened on Thursday, September 20, 1979, just a few days before the end of summer. It was a quiet grand opening, without a ribbon-cutting ceremony. 696 people rode Skytrail that day. From then until January 31, 1980, 91,976 passengers rode the monorail. Fares collected amounted to about $68,000.

1979-09-21 [Minneapolis, MN] Star Tribune (p1B) [large]

This picture by Pete Hohn for the Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN) from the grand opening of the Northern Trail Monorail. The trains were white with a blue stripe.

Debate centered around whether the state had any obligation to help the zoo. The legislature rejected assisting the zoo, including language in the budget saying that the monorail was never intended to be a public obligation and wasn’t then either. The zoo defaulted on a $200,000 payment on April 1, 1980.

The following month, the zoo was asked to make immediate repayment on monorail loan certificates from First National Bank of Minneapolis, totaling nearly $3.8 million and several Marquette banks, worth nearly $1.5 million.

At the same time, the zoo was having difficulty making money off the monorail. With zoo attendance already being lower than expected, the monorail itself was not particularly popular. It was considered boring by many who rode it. On May 24, 1980, a reporter for the Star Tribune in Minneapolis discovered that UMI did not have complete accident insurance on the ride. This reporting was triggered after one train did not act properly.

There was a backup on the monorail system, and one train pulled closely behind the train ahead of it, coming to a stop. For whatever reason, when the train stopped, the doors opened automatically, the autopilot thinking the train was in the station.

UMI believed that the state would pay most claims in the event of an accident. Company president Hank Pater said it wasn’t “in the cards” for the UMI Tourister system to have an accident. Pater said the incident that occurred was likely the result of incorrect maintenance of the monorail by the zoo.

However, on May 31, 1980, an electrical malfunction caused the monorail to stall and the engine spark and produce a lot of smoke.  The incident stranded guests for a half-hour, and it looked bad for the zoo and UMI. The monorail would be closed for about two weeks, and UMI acquired complete accident insurance a few days after this incident.

1980-06-01 [Minnesota, MN] Star Tribune (p1A) [large]

This photo of the Monorail shows the smoke billowing out of the engine compartment of the train. The photo was taken by Dan Marshaw of the Star Tribune, printed June 1, 1980, page 1A.

On the one hand, the monorail’s financial situation was very precarious, and on the other hand, the monorail was not only unpopular, but the safety of the ride was in question. The situation remained in limbo for the next several years, as lawsuits from the owners of the monorail certificates against the zoo were put in court.

The situation remained in limbo through mid-1985 when the Minnesota Legislature gave $750,000 to the Minnesota Zoo to purchase the monorail system outright from the investors. However, this was seen by the investors as an unfair offer. This pushed the zoo to search for more money to buy the system.

In August 1985, the investors informed the zoo they would be closing down the monorail on October 1. The reason for closing then was because of decline in ridership in the fall and winter months. It was also intended to remain closed indefinitely, until a purchaser could be found.

The Minnesota Zoo gained several new and influential board members of the local community who were able to provide better funding for the zoo and the monorail. They acquired a loan, doubling the money the Legislature gave to the zoo, from the Charles K. Blandin Foundation of Grand Rapids, Michigan. The loan was due to be paid back in full in 1986 (which it was).

The Minnesota Zoo was able to purchase the monorail system from the investors for $1.5 million dollars, closing the deal at the end of December 1985. The last investors eventually settled their lawsuit in June 1986. The zoo reopened Skytrail with a grand reopening ceremony on Mother’s Day, May 11, 1986.

1986-05-11 [Minneapolis, MN] Star Tribune (p7A) [large]

Advert for The Minnesota Zoo in the Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN), May 11, 1986, page 7A.

From that time onward, the Minnesota Zoo was able to push beyond its past financial problems and grow with new and exciting exhibits. Attendance increased though Skytrail never saw the kind of ridership the zoo founders envisioned.

The monorail was closed in 2013 after 34 years of service. Officials from the zoo commented that to renovate and update the ride would cost around 40 million dollars, which simply wasn’t feasible.

After the monorail was removed from the zoo, one train was sold to Gabe Emerson who has a blog called Saveitforparts. He has a lot of information about the monorail there as well, and he’s been writing about what he has been doing to remodel the train since purchasing it in 2015. He also has a few videos of the train. He also provided some background information on this article – so many thanks for the help!

That’s it for this monorail system. The next article will be about the last two systems UMI manufactured – in Florida and Louisiana. Thanks for reading! 

UMI in the mid-1970s

In 1973, Universal Mobility, Inc. (UMI) debuted their UNIMOBIL Tourister Type II monorail system. Six systems would be built over the following eleven years, three which were opened in successive years – 1973, 1974 and 1975. These are the systems that operated at Carowinds, Kings Island, and Kings Dominion.

Carowinds Monorail

Carolina Center Hotel-Monorail [Carowinds The Early Years]

The proposed Carolina Center Hotel, with the monorail as well. This image is courtesy of Carowinds The Early Years.

Carowinds opened on March 31, 1973, and just a couple of months later, on June 2, they opened their monorail system. The inaugural ride included the governors of North and South Carolina. The monorail was intended to connect the park with a hotel that was to be constructed adjacent to the theme park. The hotel was never built, however.

This monorail system was built at a cost of $3.0 million ($16.2 million in 2016 US dollars) and was two miles long. This was the longest system UMI constructed at the time, though this would be equaled by the other two systems featured in this article. Carowinds Monorail featured four 8-car trains for a capacity of 2,200 passengers per hour.

The ride peaked in popularity in the early 1980s, with ridership declining throughout the remainder of the decade and into the 1990s. This led Carowinds to remove the ride following the 1994 season. Carowinds did not scrap the ride – it was sold to Preferred Vacations, a resort company based in Acapulco, Mexico. The system was never put back into operation. It is unclear whether the monorail was scrapped or remains in storage there.


You can see the difference in the Tourister trains versus the older UNIMOBIL Type II trains. The Tourister train had an elongated front resulting in the train having more of a nose. Photo courtesy of Carowinds The Early Years.

Wild Animal Habitat Monorail

In late 1973, Kings Island announced they were adding a safari-type zoo to the park. This zoo was managed by a third party, Lion Country Safari Inc., who named the zoo Lion Country Safari. This safari included a UMI Tourister monorail system that sat lower to the ground as so to give a unique view of the safari, instead of being above it. The concept was to make people feel like they were really in the safari. The monorail was called Lion Country Safari Monorail.

The monorail system was constructed at a cost of $3.5 million ($17.0 million in 2016 US dollars), and was UMI’s second 2-mile long system. Lion Country Safari Monorail featured seven 9-car trains for a capacity of 2,100 passengers per hour. Since the ride went through a safari, it went at a slower speed than other systems UMI manufactured. There was also an additional fee to ride the monorail through the safari.

In 1977, Kings Island ended their relationship with Lion Country Safari Inc., and rethemed the area as Wild Animal Safari. As such, the monorail’s name was changed to Safari Monorail. Then, a few years later, the area was renamed Wild Animal Habitat, at which point the monorail was called Wild Animal Habitat Monorail. Following the 1993 season, Kings Island completely removed the animal habitats and the Safari Monorail from the park, with the area being rethemed Adventure Village.

The Safari Monorail remained in storage until 1999 when Jungle Jim’s International Market bought the system. Jungle Jim’s operates the monorail for a short time during the year to this day.

Wild Animal Safari Monorail

Given that Kings Island and Kings Dominion were sister parks, it was only natural that Kings Dominion would have a similar themed region. In 1974, when Kings Dominion first began operations, they also opened a Lion Country Safari section. The monorail was not constructed until the fall of 1974, with the system opening in 1975. Just like the system at Kings Island, this was an approximate ground-level system.

This system was built by UMI at cost not publicized; the cost was likely similar to Kings Island’s. The system was two miles long and the trains featured nine cars per train. The ride time was about 20 minutes.

Monorail [Kings Dominion]

Here is a photo of the monorail which operated in Kings Dominion. You can see it sat either on the ground or a couple of feet above it. Photo is from an article about Lion Country Safari, Kings Dominion.

As with Kings Island, Kings Dominion eventually re-themed the safari Wild Animal Safari. This happened roughly a decade after Kings Island had changed theirs. As such, the monorail was then called Wild Animal Safari Monorail. In November 1993, Kings Dominion announced it was removing Wild Animal Safari, which included the safari monorail. This monorail system was apparently scrapped.

The area was removed because of apparent lack of interest. It was also said that Paramount, which bought Kings Dominion (and Kings Island) in 1992, believed the safari area did not fit in with the new theme to the park.

This was a look at the first three Tourister systems UMI built at parks which are now all owned by Cedar Fair. Up next is a Tourister system which was built at the Minnesota Zoo. This system has quite the story, so be sure to check back soon! Special thanks to Carowinds The Early Years for allowing me to use a few pictures for this article. 

Universal Mobility, Incorporated

In 1960, a man by the name of Hendrik “Hank” Pater founded a new corporation in his hometown of Salt Lake City, Utah: Advanced Welding Engineers (AWE). Pater is company president and general manager. In about 1963, AWE merged with another Salt Lake City firm, Steel Contractors, Inc. (SCI), of which Pater was president.

The business these two companies in varied within steel manufacturing, but it would turn to building tramways for ski resorts. One project SCI was part of was a tramway at Treasure Mountains! Park City, the longest gondola high ride in the country at the time. SCI fabricated towers and crossbars for the gondola lift.

In 1965, SCI was involved with another tramway project in New Mexico. Pater served as the principle consulter for SCI.  Sometime between then and 1967, Pater left Steel Contractors to form a new company, Constam Corporation. This company was founded to enter the monorail systems market, since monorail systems were growing in popularity.

Constam was awarded the opportunity to build a monorail system that was a mini-monorail system, known as a minirail. This system was designed by Habegger Engineering Works of Thun, Switzerland. Habegger previously installed three minirail systems, two in Europe, and one in Canada for Expo 67.

1964-06-04 The [Franklin] News-Herald (p7)

The Habegger minirail system called Telecanape, at the Swiss National Exposition, in 1964.

The opportunity Constam gained was an agreement with Habegger to build a minirail system at the California Exposition in Sacramento, California. The project was announced in December 1967, with the ride scheduled to open in 1968. With no major issues, the minirail system at the Cal Expo opened in 1968 for the California State Fair.

With this first success in 1968, Constam had the chance to move forward with a second minirail system. This project would be on the other side of the country in Hershey, Pennsylvania. Announced in December 1968, the ride that would be called Monorail was scheduled to open in June 1969.

Underneath Monorail

This picture is from underneath the Monorail at Hersheypark, from 2016.

Around the time of the opening of Monorail at Hersheypark, Constam reorganized into Universal Mobility. The company was branded as Unimobil / Habegger and the systems installed at the Cal Expo and Hershey were called Unimobil Type II.

Miami Downtown People-Mover Environmental Impact Statement (p2-56)

Unimobil/Habegger Type II – as shown in an environmental impact statement for a possible downtown Miami people-mover system.

The first monorail UMI would sell after Hershey was a minirail system to Magic Mountain, in Valencia, California. The ride was named Metro and had several stations in the park. Metro opened in 1971.

Metro remained in operation for the next 30 years, closing in 2001. It wasn’t until 2011 that some of Metro was dismantled. The trains for Metro were sold to Hersheypark, along with a small amount of track. Parts of Metro still stand in Six Flags Magic Mountain today, including one of the old stations.

The remainder of the monorails UMI constructed at theme parks were a new system called UM Tourister Type II. Three were constructed: Carowinds (1973), Kings Island (1974), and Kings Dominion (1975). The Carowinds Monorail would be closed in 1994, while the Kings Dominion system would be closed in 1993. The Kings Island system was also closed in 1993. In 1999, Jungle Jim’s International Market purchased the minirail system and it continues to operate to this day.

1983 Metropolitan Transportation Planning (p411)

A UNIMOBIL / Habegger monorail system shown in a 1983 Metropolitan Transportation Planning document, page 411.

In the mid-70s, UMI began subcontracting the manufacture of fiberglass components of the trains to a company called Intermountain Design Inc. (IDI), of Salt Lake City. This relationship would continue for as long as UMI would exist.

IDI did have other jobs. This included – a full  decade later – designing the lavatory for Air Force One during the George H.W. Bush presidency. IDI would manufacture the fiberglass components of at least the monorail systems built after 1975.

Three other Tourister monorails were built, one at Minnesota Zoological Garden in Apple Valley, Minnesota, which opened in 1979. An agreement was made between UMI and the zoo in August 1977. Only part of the ride officially opened in 1979, with the remainder of the route opening in 1980. It was also subject of a US Department of Transportation winterization test to understand how well certain monorail systems could operate in winter conditions.

1982-01 Downtown people mover (DPM) winterization test demonstration: UMI

This is the front cover of the DPM Winterization Test Demonstration in which UMI participated. The final report was issued in January 1982.


The monorail at the Minnesota Zoo was closed in 2013. Officials from the zoo commented that to renovate and update the ride would cost around 40 million dollars, which simply wasn’t feasible.

In 1981, UMI was contracted to build a monorail for the soon opening ZooMetro in Miami, Florida. UMI then contracted Budd Company, of Detroit, Michigan, to assist in the construction of the system.This Tourister system opened in December 1982.

This would lead to UMI’s final monorail – which was built at the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition. UMI decided to create a subsidiary company that was a joint venture between Budd Co. and UMI. This company was named Unimobile 84, Inc. after the minirail system.

While the monorail at the expo was the most popular ride at the event, the exposition itself was not generating the kind of revenues they were expecting. Unimobile 84 pushed to get revenue, and a deal was struck between the company and the fair. However, it was apparent the fair was unable to meet the terms of the agreement. Unimobile 84 eventually sued the fair organizers themselves to get payment; this did not fare well in the courts (pun not intended). Unimobile 84 took the case to Federal Appeals Court, in which they lost.

It was apparent that this venture hurt Universal Mobility, Inc., as they would not sell another monorail after this point. The Transportation Group, Inc. (TGI), a branch of Bombardier Inc., purchased UMI in 1989. The most valuable asset was a new design UMI had been working on, which was the UMI Type III monorail. TGI would go on to use some of the Type III designs in other projects.

UMI did offer a few other systems, though none of these ever seemed to be sold. One system was a UNIMOBIL Transporter System. Another was a tram service called Unimobil Unitram. The tram was available for sale in at least 1985-1986.

1986-Spring A Shuttle Bus for the University of Central Florida

A picture of a Unimobil Unitram, sold by UMI, in at least 1985-1986. This image was in a Master’s thesis for the University of Central Florida discussing the need for a shuttle bus service.

This is the complete history of Universal Mobility, Incorporated, from the 1960s to the end of the 1980s. Out of their nine minirail systems, four still operate today, including their oldest two. For a company that has been defunct for nearly 30 years, with a system long since outdated, that’s a pretty good accomplishment.

If you have any questions or comments, feel free to leave them in the comments section. To see references for this article, click here. Thanks for reading!

Habegger Maschinenfabrik AG

Habegger Maschinenfabrik AG is a company in Thun, Switzerland. It was founded by Willy Habegger in 1943. They began manufacturing a type of monorail they were calling a “minirail” sometime in the early 1960s. At the time, the company was called Maschinenfabrik Habegger.

The first monorail Habegger designed was for Expo64 in Lausanne, Switzerland. Habegger worked in conjunction with Von Roll Corporation. The ride featured a turntable transfer system named Telecanape. It was one of the more popular attractions at the Swiss expo. When the expo concluded, the ride was removed from the site. Part of the system used there was then bought and moved to Blackpool Pleasure Beach in the United Kingdom for the 1966 season. The system remained in operation through 2012, when it was closed.

1964-06-04 The [Franklin] News-Herald (p7).jpg

A picture of the Telecanape monorail system at Expo64, printed in The News-Herald of Franklin, PA, June 4, 1964, page 7.

The following year, Habegger changed its name to Habegger Engineering Company. They coordinated with Von Roll to build a second minirail system. This time, however, Von Roll used their own monorail trains, the first in Von Roll’s Mk II series of monorail trains. This was seen at the Zurich Transportation Expo. From this point for about the next two decades, Habegger and Von Roll would not work together on monorail projects.

In 1967, Habegger hired the Canadian division of the British firm Hawker Siddeley to manufacture several trains for the monorail system to be operated at Montreal’s Expo ’67. This system was called Minirail, and part of the system operates in La Ronde amusement park. Habegger contributed their own monorail trains from the 1964 Swiss event.

The significance of Habegger’s design of a minirail was the concept of the rail the train ran on. The other significant part of the design was the autopilot system that was on board Habegger minirail systems. The autopilot system was designed by Habegger and manufactured by a German electronics company, Honegger Elektronik AG of Zurich.

With the popularity of Expo ’67, and the interest in monorail systems growing in the United States, Habegger partnered with Salt Lake City, Utah, firm Constam Corporation to sell and manufacture monorails in the United States. Habegger licensed their autopilot system to Constam, while Constam was responsible for fabricating the steel and trains for the system.

Under this agreement, Constam would construct two monorails, one in Sacramento, California, in 1968, the other in Hershey, Pennsylvania, in 1969. Later in 1969, Constam was reorganized into Universal Mobility, Inc. (UMI). UMI and Habegger’s ties grew closer as they branded their monorail system as Unimobil / Habegger. Under the new arrangement, they sold their first monorail to Magic Mountain in 1970. This was the last old monorail system they sold, which they named UNIMOBIL Type II.

Miami Downtown People-Mover Environmental Impact Statement (p2-56)

Unimobil/Habegger Type II – as shown in an environmental impact statement for a possible downtown Miami people-mover system.

At the same time, Habegger built two minirail systems at Fuji-Q Highlands in Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi, Japan, which opened in 1970. These two systems were the last Habegger systems built outside of the United States.

They developed a second-generation monorail system called the UNIMOBIL Tourister Type II, which was sold to five properties between 1973 and 1984. Universal Mobility ended up going out of business, with their assets being sold off in 1989.

In 1980, Willy Habegger lost control of his company when it entered a liquidity crisis. Berner Kantonalbank took control and sold the company to Von Roll in 1982. (Von Roll possibly sold a segment of the Habegger branch to Waagner-Biro in 1984.) Von Roll folded Habegger into their monorail division, with that division being called Von Roll Habegger.

1986 Von Roll Habegger brochure (p1)

The cover of a Von Roll Habegger Monorail brochure, circa 1986.

In 1993, Von Roll Habegger was sold to Westinghouse AEG, based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This would mark the beginning of a period of company reorganizations for the monorail division. Westinghouse AEG itself was a subsidiary of AEG Schienenfahrzeuge GmbH of Germany. AEG Schienenfahrzeuge was a subsidiary of Daimler-Benz, the well-known German automobile manufacturer.

In 1995, Daimler-Benz proposed merging of their rail transportation division with the rail transportation division of another company, ABB of Zurich, Switzerland.  ABB and Daimler-Benz reached an agreement in which both companies would own 50 percent of the company. The new company was founded on January 1, 1996, operating under the brand name Adtranz. Formally, Adtranz was called ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation. In 1999, Daimler (then called DaimlerChrysler, after acquiring Chrysler Corporation in 1998) bought out ABB’s share of the company; the formal name was changed to DaimlerChrysler Rail Systems. The company kept the Adtranz brand name.

Beginning in August 2000, Bombardier, Inc., a conglomerate and manufacturer of mass transit equipment, airplanes, etc., announced it was going to purchase Adtranz. After a regulatory review process with the European Union, Bombardier purchased Adtranz for $725 million. A representative for DaimlerChrysler said at the time that the company was focusing on their automotive divisions.

The former Von Roll Habegger monorail division continues lives on in Bombardier today, part of the Bombardier Transportation division of the company.

Willy Habegger was able to purchase part of his company back, establishing the modern Habegger Maschinenfabrik AG. Habegger purchased the lifting technologies division, and the company continues to focus on that to this day. He passed away on April 16, 2002, having retired from the business in 1993.

Thank you for reading. The next article will be about Universal Mobility, Incorporated, which will be available later this week.